The term Open Educational Resources (OER) was coined in 2002 in discussions at the Forum on the Impact of Open Courseware UNESCO. It describes “the provision of educational resources on open license, enabled by information technologies and communication, for consultation, use and adaptation by a community of users with non-commercial purposes”.
In June 2012, Community OER and UNESCO celebrated 10 years in the area of Open World Congress of Educational Resources in Paris, where the Declaration REA Paris 2012 was formally adopted. This calls on governments around the world to establish the adoption of open licenses for sharing knowledge produced with public funds.
This trilingual Compendium (written in English, Spanish and Portuguese) aims to fill part of the need for institutionalized information, and aims to discuss in a clear, didactic and realistic way, the experiences of selected higher education institutions who have offered OER. This document provides a unique approach. It combines remarkable initiatives in the institutional development of REA in Higher Education institutions in the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and Spain with experiences from Higher Education institutions and universities from Brazil, Mexico, and Ecuador, which serve to enlighten the compendium with their innovative ideas and projects.
This document has been developed in close collaboration with experts, researchers and decision makers from more than 10 universities in order to provide a global perspective of the OER movement. Some of the more relevant trends identified in this study are exemplified by a broad range of initiatives, including: change in the organizational culture; flexible certification; new business models; middle term institutional strategy; incentives policy; use of non-commercial open source or self-develop platforms; focus on champions; decentralized – federated solutions; open standard, bibliometric criteria; search engine optimization; community building and peer-based collaboration; quality assurance; repurposing and licensing; and open publishing policies.
The cases included in this study are:
- Unicycle OER Project, Leeds Metropolitan University (UK)
- OpenER, Open Universiteit (Netherlands)
- Openlearn, Open University (UK)
- University of Alicante’s Open Knowledge Strategy (Spain)
- Open Educational Practices, UTPL (Ecuador)
- TEMOA, Tecnológico de Monterrey (México)
- CEDERJ – TECA, (Brazil)
- Institucional Policy Of Open Access, OUC (Spain)
- OpenSpires, Oxford University (UK)
As follows the interviews included (podcast available):
- David Kernohan, Programme Manager, e-Learning, JISC
- Faraón Llorens and Juan José Bayona, University of Alicante’s,
- Fred Mulder, UNESCO Chair in OER.
- Mary Lou Forward, Executive Director OpenCourseWare Consortium.
- Pedro Aranzadi, Managing Director of Universia Spain
- Robert Schuwer, Associate Professor at the Open University of the Netherlands.
Dr Andreia Inamorato dos Santos (Universidade Federal Fluminense, Brazil)
Dr Cristobal Cobo (University of Oxford, UK)
Dr Celso Costa (Universidade Federal Fluminense, Brazil)